Applications and Investigations in Earth Science by Edward J. Tarbuck

By Edward J. Tarbuck

Designed to accompany Tarbuck and Lutgen's Earth technology and Foundations of Earth technology , this handbook can be utilized for any Earth technological know-how lab path, at the side of any textual content. The 8th version minimizes the necessity for school guideline within the lab, releasing teachers to engage without delay with scholars. extensively praised for its concise assurance and dynamic illustrations by way of Dennis Tasa, the textual content comprises twenty-three step by step routines that make stronger significant subject matters in geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy.

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Foliation is associated with many metamorphic rocks and gives them a layered or banded appearance. 18 Under directed pressure, linear or platy minerals, such as the micas, become reoriented or recrystallized so that their surfaces are aligned at right angles to the stress. The resulting planar orientation of mineral grains is called foliation. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. F O L I AT I O N Exercise Two / Rocks and the Rock Cycle 41 Foliated Metamorphic Rocks The mineral crystals in foliated metamorphic rocks are either elongated or have thin, platy shapes and are arranged in a parallel or layered manner.

The interlocking assemblage of silicate minerals that develop as the molten material cools gives most igneous rocks their distinctive crystalline appearance. The rate at which magma cools determines the size of the interlocking crystals found in igneous rocks. The slower the cooling rate, the larger the mineral crystals. A. Coarse-grained texture B. 4╇ Coarse-grained compared to fine-grained igneous textures. 4A). These rocks have intergrown crystals that are roughly equal in size and large enough that the individual minerals within can be identified with the unaided eye.

1 Rock Groups and the Rock Cycle Most rocks are aggregates (mixtures) of mineral crystals or fragments (gravel, sand, and silt) of preexisting rocks. However, there are some important exceptions, including obsidian, a rock made of volcanic glass (a non-crystalline substance), and coal, a rock made of decayed plant material (an organic substance). Rocks are classified into three groups—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic—based on the processes by which they were formed. Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks Igneous rocks are the solidified products of once-molten material that was created by melting in the upper mantle or crust.

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