By Frank L. Smith III
Biological guns have threatened U.S. nationwide safeguard given that not less than international conflict II. traditionally, despite the fact that, the U.S. army has missed examine, improvement, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September eleven and the anthrax letters of 2001, the USA began spending billions of greenbacks in line with 12 months on clinical countermeasures and organic detection platforms. yet so much of this investment now comes from the dept of wellbeing and fitness and Human prone instead of the dept of safeguard. Why has the U.S. army missed biodefense and allowed civilian companies to take the lead in protecting the rustic opposed to organic assaults? In American Biodefense, Frank L. Smith III addresses this difficult and mostly untold tale approximately technology, expertise, and nationwide security.
Smith argues that organizational frames and stereotypes have prompted either army overlook and the increase of civilian biodefense. within the armed prone, influential principles approximately kinetic war have undermined safeguard opposed to organic war. The impression of those rules on technology and expertise demanding situations the normal knowledge that nationwide safeguard coverage is pushed via threats or bureaucratic pursuits. Given the guidelines at paintings contained in the U.S. army, Smith explains how the teachings discovered from biodefense may help clear up different very important difficulties that diversity from radiation guns to cyber attacks.
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Additional resources for American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security
The War Research Service was initially responsible for coordinating all research and development related to biological warfare. Its first task was biodefense. 12 In order to maintain secrecy, laboratory facilities and pilot plants were built at Camp Detrick in Frederick, Maryland. ”13 In December 1943, intelligence indicated that Germany might use BW against Britain. ”15 That no such similarity had ever been demonstrated was increasingly irrelevant. Instead, critical differences between chemical and biological warfare were unexamined or ignored while the military’s stereotype conflating the two was further institutionalized.
38 While intelligence estimates of Iraqi capabilities were reasonably accurate during the 1991 Gulf War, the same cannot be said about the information used to build the case for invading Iraq in 2003. 40 Lastly, terrorists have acquired and actually used biological weapons with hostile intent but mixed results. This indicates that the technical barriers to bioterrorism are neither inconsiderable nor insurmountable. On the one hand, the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo was seen as a bellwether for mass-casualty terrorism after it killed more than a dozen people with sarin gas in 1995.
The armed services compete with each other because funding is limited and cooperation constrains their independence. Consequently, compromise over issues like biodefense is usually reached through competitive bargaining and the officials involved are expected to be stanch advocates for their parochial programs, protecting if not expanding their turf or fiefdom. Bureaucratic Turf Wars: Winners and Losers If policymaking is a competitive game, then who will win? What determines the outcome of bureaucratic struggles between and inside military and civilian agencies?