A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder by J. R. Partington

By J. R. Partington

For almost six hundred years, from the battles of the early fourteenth century to the losing of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, firearms derived from gunpowder and different chemical substances outlined the frightful volume of battle. The gear and fabrics utilized in global warfare i'd were regularly occurring to our distant ancestors. during this vintage paintings, first released in 1960, James Riddick Partington offers a global survey of the evolution of incendiary units, Greek hearth, and gunpowder.Greek hearth, a composition Partington believes was once made from a distilled petroleum fraction and different parts (but now not saltpetre), used to be so much famously utilized in the sieges of Constantinople and the Crusades. Partington strikes from its antecedents—other incendiaries utilized in historical warfare—to eu gunpowder recipe books ( The Latin booklet of fireside, Bellifortis, and Feuerwerkbuch) and the heritage of infernal machines, mines, canon, small fingers, and artillery. His e-book comprises chapters on gunpowder and guns in Muslim lands, India, and China—including hearth books, using gunpowder as a propellant, the artillery of the Mughal Emperors, and using saltpetre in explosives. He lines the improvement of gunpowder to eleventh-century China and cites the 1st identified point out and imagine of a firearm in 1326. "The background of gunpowder and firearms has attracted many authors with various pursuits. the overall historian needs to take account of significant innovations effecting revolutions within the lifetime of international locations. The historian of technological know-how is anxious in general with the discovery of gunpowder. The historian of expertise examines the advance within the manufacture of explosives and guns, and how during which gunpowder has chanced on functions within the peaceable arts. the army historian bargains normally with using gunpowder as an explosive and a propellant... and the advance of firearms and their use in war. No fresh ebook in English (or for that topic in any language) has tried a concise survey of the subject."—from the Preface

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D. 240) says that when Maximinus took the town of Aquileia, the inhabitants threw on the soldiers and the siege-engines pots filled with a burning mixture of sulphur (delov). e. falarica). D. D. 515 to use sulphur {Betov dvvpov) to burn the ships of Vitalianus, but Zonaras®® says Proklos the Soothsayer {oveipoKplrTjs;) used mirrors. D. ®® ANCIENT FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Ancient fire extinguishers were water, sand, dry or moist earth, manure, urine (which contains phosphates), and especially vinegar, which was considered to be particularly cold.

Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature and the Arts, publ. by the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Quellen u. Studien z. Gesch. Naturwiss. u. Med. Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Medizin, Berlin. r recto (right hand page). I. Acad. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Rev. Deux Mondes. Revue des Deux Mondes, Paris. Rev. Scientif. Revue Scientifique, Paris. -techn. Vortrdge. Sammlung chemischer und chemischtechnischer Vortrage, Stuttgart. Scribonius Largus, De compos, med.

D. 415)"' said limestone on burning takes up part of the nature of fire, which on cooling is retained in a latent form; this heat is disengaged on contact with water (the enemy of fire) but not by oil (the food of fire). In I I Maccabees (i. 2 0 - 3 6 ) , a "thick water" called naphtha (ve^^ai), brought from Persia, poured over wood on the altar, or on large stones, inflamed when the sun shone on it. G. If quicklime was mixed with the wood soaked in petroleum, and water was poured on, or a mixture of naphtha and water poured on quicklime ("large stones"), the event may have happened as described, since a mixture of petroleum and quicklime inflames if sprinkled with w a t e r .

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